ICGR Mini Tracks

The Mini Tracks for ICGR

      • Gender Stereotypes and bias in Education and Work
      • The Power of Power: The Gender Wars and Academic Freedom of Speech
      • The Baby and the Bathwater
      • Working Families and Care-Giving: strains, strategies and solutions
      • Women and Leadership
      • Women in Family Business
      • Gender Gap in the Workplace
      • Intersectionality and Leadership: Creating leaders through the eyes of “whiteness”
      • Gender and Social Justice
Submit your Abstract to an Academic Conference

Gender Stereotypes and bias in Education and Work

Marina Della Giusta
Karen Jones

Mini Track Chair: Marina Della Giusta and Karen Jones, University of Reading, UK  

ICGR 2020 Mini Track on Gender Stereotypes and bias in Education and Work  

Stereotypes can be described as shortcuts our brain uses to make decisions in absence of accurate information, providing shortcuts that incorporate a range of expectations of how someone else will behave((Jussim et al, 2015, Kahnemann, 2011 Schenider, 2004). As the biases form unconsciously, they are hard to mitigate. Gender is one important dimension along which stereotypes are formed (and interacts of course with other dimensions intersectionally), affecting expectations and actual behaviors (Rippon, 2019). Gender stereotypes emerge in early childhood (Bian et al, 2017) and exposure to bias toward one’s group affects effort, self-confidence, productivity and pupils’ performance (Carlana, 2018; Atewologun et al, 2018; Perry, 2017; Gilliam et al, 2016; Campbell, 2015; Devine et al, 2013; Schmader, 2010; Johns et al. 2005).

Suggested topics include but are not limited to:

      • discuss ways to measure gender bias in quantitative and non-quantitative dimensions (e.g. language)
      • discuss ways in which outcomes are affected by bias
      • discuss the role of institutional design in mitigating the effects of bias
      • discuss the role of training or revealing bias in mitigating the effects of bias

The Power of Power: The Gender Wars and Academic Freedom of Speech

Mini Track Chair: Madeleine Davies, University of Reading, UK    

ICGR 2020 Mini Track on The Power of Power: The Gender Wars and Academic Freedom of Speech  

The track aims to explore the fall-out from ‘The Gender Wars’ which erupted in US, UK and Australian institutions in 2016 and, in particular, to reflect on its implications in relation to the interpretation of academic freedom of speech within the HE sector. In the UK, the impact of potential changes to The Gender Recognition Act has caused concern for feminist scholars who often identify as ‘Gender Critical’. These academics have struggled to preserve spaces in which to voice their concerns in a climate increasingly characterized by hostility and division. There is the potential for both Gender Critical feminists and Trans Activists to feel embattled and to feel that the other’s right to academic freedom of speech trespasses on ‘hate speech’. Universities have often struggled to negotiate a pathway through a heated debate informed by a perceived clash between rights. This panel asks how universities can protect academic freedom of speech when both sides of the argument views the other’s speech as inherently hateful. The track does not aim to rehearse Gender Critical Feminist viewpoints nor the positions proposed by trans ideology; instead, it aims to explore what  the clash reveals about shifting power dynamics between students/’customers’ and universities, the role of social media in public intellectual debate and in institutional dynamics, and the potentially far-reaching challenges to core assumptions regarding academic freedom of speech.

Suggested topics include but are not limited to:

      • the shift in power between students and institutions/academics revealed in the struggle for speaking rights
      • the role of institutions in defending academic freedom of speech and what is at stake in this concept
      • analysis of the role of social media in the creation of a febrile debate; implications in terms of institutional authority
      • the divisions the debate caused within the academic community (predominantly in the US, UK, and Australia)
      • the long-term implications of the ‘war’, and the lessons to be drawn from it
      • how the concept of ‘academic freedom of speech’ may need to be reshaped

The Baby and the Bathwater

Marina Della Giusta
Grace James

Mini Track Chair: Marina Della Giusta & Grace James, University of Reading, UK  

ICGR 2020 Mini Track on The Baby and the Bathwater  

The way in which families are formed and decisions about having children has changed over the past decades for many reasons. One issue relating to this is how the delay in starting to have children has resulted in a rise in those suffering with fertility problems. This mini track aims to explore the implications for professional women’s careers and wellbeing in relation to the postponement of fertility decisions associated with the increasingly prolonged pre-labour market qualifications required for many professions (PhDs and post-docs in academia and the medical profession, qualifying exams in many others). The relationship between fertility and career stalling in the form of interruptions and reduced working hours as well as impacts on wages and pensions is well documented (Mincer and Polachek, 1974; Kleven et al., 2018). And although the serious physical and emotional challenges of infertility are also well studied in the medical literature (Norton 2012), the condition, mired in fear and shame, remains largely private.

This culture of silence, not only leaves those affected with little social and professional support, it also places them at a legal disadvantage. For instance, although UK law provides special protections for pregnancy and related health conditions in the workplace, pregnancies ending or threatening to end in loss are unlikely to be formally reported. Whilst this affects all women dealing with infertility, it is of particular concern for highly educated, professional women for whom motherhood largely does not start until their 30s (Livingston 2015), having spent their early adult years in higher education and getting on the career track.

Suggested topics include but are not limited to:

      • document the extent of the phenomenon of miscarriage and assisted fertility in the UK or other countries
      • discuss the role of the law and cultural factors
      • discuss the role of labour markets factors (including entry qualifications, hiring policies, sick and parental leave policies etc)
      • explore implications for women’s health and wellbeing

Working Families and Care-Giving: strains, strategies and solutions

Mini Track Chair: Grace James, University of Reading, UK  

ICGR 2020 Mini Track on Working Families and Care-Giving: strains, strategies and solutions  

Care-work (for children and adults) is undertaken within families across the globe.  It is highly gendered. The extent of care-work being undertaken on a daily, and often nightly, basis is staggering and provides a blunt reminder that most of us will care for someone close to us at some point in our lives. The importance of such care-work is fundamental but difficult to measure, especially as it has historically gone unrecognised in any material sense. Yet most will agree that care-work is crucial. Indeed, care-giving/dependent relationships are, as Martha Fineman (2004) argues, a universally inevitable part of the human condition. Although the nature of care-work has altered in many ways, this basic fact is not specific to any time or place in history. Yet, how to best support working families with care-giving responsibilities is an ongoing challenge for individuals, families, employers, and policy-makers across the globe. It has a particular importance for women, who often depend upon this support to facilitate labour market participation.

This mini track is an open call to all those working in this key area: for example, papers might highlight the challenges, assess strategies / their implementation in practice or offer alternative solutions. The track is not limited to a particular sector or country. It welcomes global perspectives, intersectionality perspectives and any papers exploring particular or broad issues surrounding working families with care-giving responsibilities.

Suggested topics include but are not limited to:

      • the challenges / obstacles facing those who attempt to balance care work and paid employment
      • an assessment of strategies (e.g. individual, legal, workplace-focussed) that have been implemented to help alleviate the tensions that can exist for working families
      • a discussion of potential solutions to the ongoing paid work/care-giving conundrums that plague that lives of many working families
      • Intersectionality perspectives
      • moving away from stereotypical care-roles (eg stay-at-home Dads)

Women and Leadership

Karen Jones
Claire Collins

Mini Track Chair: Karen Jones and Claire Collins, University of Reading, UK  

ICGR 2020 Mini Track on Women and Leadership  

This mini track aims to explore the opportunities and obstacles to women's progress in leadership. It is well established that there is a deficit of women in positions of power and leadership in virtually every industry and sphere of public life around the world. Illustrative of this problem, of CEOs in the 2018 Fortune 500 list, just 24 (4.8%) are women. Worse still, this figure has dropped from previous years. Globally, only 33.6% of judgeships in Supreme Courts are held by women (OECD, 2017). Just 34 of the top 200 Higher Education Institutions in the world are led by women (Times Higher Education World University Rankings, 2019). In the UK, around 25% of professors are women. This figure plummets in male dominated fields such as chemistry, where only 9% of chemistry professors in the UK are women ( Royal Society of Chemistry, 2019). Intersectional analysis reveals an even starker picture.  In 2016-17 there were just 25 black women among 19,000 professors in UK Universities (Advance HE, 2018). The track is not limited to a particular sector or country. It welcomes global perspectives and papers exploring issues surrounding women’s leadership in a range of settings.

Suggested topics include but are not limited to:

      • the opportunities and obstacles to women's progress in leadership in specific sectors or spheres of public life g. politics, the judiciary, military, civil society, business, corporate world, public sector, education
      • specific issues relating to the glass cliff, glass ceiling, prejudice towards women leaders, evaluations of women leaders, leadership pay gap, homosocial networks, social capital, perceptions of women’s leadership style and the so called female advantage in leadership, authenticity and emotion work
      • intersectionality perspectives
      • critical perspectives, neoliberal feminist and postfeminist analysis

Women in Family Business

Prof Francesca Maria Cesaroni
Dr Annalisa Sentuti

Mini Track Chair: Professor Francesca Maria Cesaroni and Dr Annalisa Sentuti, University of Urbino Carlo Bo, Italy  

ICGR 2020 Mini Track on Women in Family Business  

According to Chua, Chrisman, and Sharma (1999), family firms can be defined as businesses “governed and/or managed with the intention to shape and pursue the vision of the business held by a dominant coalition controlled by members of the same family or a small number of families in a manner that is potentially sustainable across generations”. The fact that family businesses play a crucial role in both industrialised and developing countries is widely recognized as well as the growing involvement of women in the ownership, management and leadership of family firms. Women’s involvement in family firms has been a topic of academic interests since the 80s studied with different research methods and theoretical perspectives. Initial studies mainly focused on invisibility factors that hinder women’s participation in family firms. Then, attention progressively moved to positive aspects related to women’s inclusion, with particular regard to female careers and leadership within succession. Lastly, some authors have analysed the conditions that maximize the outcomes of women’s involvement in family firms.

However, only few studies discuss and analyse gender issues in depth and/or adopt a feminine perspective in order to gain a thorough understanding of the heterogeneity of women’s involvement in the ownership, management and leadership of family businesses. Thus, there is a need for more research to examine these topics adopting a gender perspective and the purpose of this mini track is to inspire researchers and practitioners in this scope.

Suggested topics include but are not limited to:

      • Women-owned family businesses;
      • Women and family business performance, innovation, corporate social responsibility, internationalization and growth;
      • Women’s career and leadership dynamics in family business;
      • Copreneurships and gender dynamics;
      • Succession from mother to siblings;
      • Gender and entrepreneurial identity construction within family firms;
      • Gender stereotypes in family

Gender Gap in the Workplace

Mini Track Chair: Elisabeth Pereira, University of Aveiro, Portugal  

ICGR 2020 Mini Track on Gender Gap in the Workplace  

Much of the research into workplace issues has traditionally come from a male perspective, but the extant literature identifies differences between men and women as workers, managers and entrepreneurs. These differences are particularly clear in terms of their propensity to innovation, approach to creativity, decision making, resilience, creativity and co-creation. The aim of this mini track is to consider the evolution over the last decade and the current state of the gender gap concerning women in the workplace. We will examine the socio-economic inequalities in the workplace and how these are affected by education, individual skills, wages, work performance, productivity, promotion and mobility. Papers can adopt diverse research methodologies and can draw from different theoretical streams and disciplines. We welcome proposals from both academics and practitioners. We also welcome comparative analyses of different countries or approaches to the gender gap in the workplace. 

Suggested topics include but are not limited to:

      • evolution of gender inequalities in the workplace over time
      • the effect of gender inequalities on wages, work performance and productivity, promotion, and mobility
      • women entrepreneurs
      • how to further close the gender gap in the workplace
      • how to explore the positive attributes women bring to the workplace

Intersectionality and Leadership: Creating leaders through the eyes of “whiteness”

Mini Track Chair: Dr Victoria Showunmi, University College London (UCL) IOE, UK  

ICGR 2020 Mini Track on Intersectionality and Leadership: Creating leaders through the eyes of “whiteness”  

Leadership is one of the most debated aspects of business and contemporary organisations. Much has been said on corporate leaders and what defines them as ‘successful’ or ‘effective’. However, current leadership models are usually devised within a homogeneous, (North American) westernised, white male-oriented paradigm (Lumby, 2007).  Theorists have noted the inadequacy of many leadership perspectives, urging a move from ‘colonial’ models of managing ‘otherness’, to incorporate minority ethnic voices (Gilborn, 2004; Lopez, 2003; Osler, 2008). Other significant challenges to this unitary perspective have been introduced in the ‘real world’, notably following the election of Barack Obama.

These changes have implications for current discourse in leadership theory and practice such as ‘authentic leadership’ (Goffee and Jones 2005), ‘distributed leadership’ (Diamond 2007) and ‘aesthetic approach’ (Hansen et. al. 2005).  For instance, what are the implications of ‘authenticity’ for non-typical leaders like Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic (BME) individuals? What are the implications for shared leadership in the context of power dynamics inherent in cross-identity group relationships? With increasing globalisation, cultural and ethnic diversity, new leadership models ought to draw upon a wider notion of leadership, potentially encompassing a wider range of leadership styles from different societies and cultures.

Suggested topics include but are not limited to:

      • The intersection of facets of diversity with leadership (e.g. black women leaders)
      • The absence of BME leaders
      • The challenges faced by minority leaders
      • Organisations’ roles in developing BAME leaders
      • The case for BME-only leadership development programmes
      • Potential learning from other established leadership literature streams such as women in leadership, disability and leadership and sexual orientation and leadership
      • New models of leadership drawing on spirituality, creativity, ethics and aesthetics
      • Leaders in the community and relevance to organisational leadership


Gender and Social Justice

Mini Track Chair: Carol Fuller, University of Reading, UK  

ICGR 2020 Mini Track on Gender and Social Justice  

This mini track aims to explore the role of social variables such as gender, race and ethnicity and social class on the construction of identity, aspirations and ambitions and the ways that these impact on issues of social equity. Specifically, it focuses on the unequal accesses to educational and career success for different social groups by focusing on the ways that macro and mezzo processes serve to reinforce structural inequalities at the micro level.  

Whilst the track is not limited to a particular sector or country we are looking at the gender issues surrounding social justice. The track welcomes global perspectives and papers exploring issues surrounding gender and social justice in a range of settings.  

Suggested topics include but are not limited to:

      • issues of discriminations, stereo types, policy and practice
      • specific issues relating to unequal access to networks of support, housing, medical care, information, childcare, health and educational programmes across social classes and across genders
      • sociological, political, economic, psychological and philosophical dimensions
      • initiatives and projects trying to break these barriers
      • generational cycles that form from these issues and the implication of gender in those cycles
      • social class and the single parent household
      • intersectionality
      • critical perspectives
      • case studies
      • international and intercultural perspectives